The process of reform is one of remaking institutional arrangements. In terms of rural reform, the first fundamental methodological question is what is the basis for making institutional arrangements.
In the process of social transition, there have arisen various new social problems and social demands. Solving these problems and meeting these demands also depend on, apart from government efforts, organized social forces.
Whether the people could participate in political affairs in wider areas and on a larger scale are gauges for measuring democratic development level.
Democracy is by itself a value and embodies the essential requirement of socialism. The construction of democratic politics should not be in a utilitarian manner or with an absolute thinking.
In reviewing China’s community-level democracy progress since reform and opening-up, we may find on one hand, the social foundation of democracy progress is rapidly expanding and numerous new forces are becoming the propeller for democratization.
The reports delivered at the 15th and 16th National Congresses of the Communist Party of China took expanding community-level democracy and fully motivating the people as a key task of the political system reform.
Since China’s accession to the WTO in 2001, China has been on a steep learning curve in terms of engaging in outward direct investment, and state-owned enterprises (SOEs) have played a predominant role in this drive.
Farmers’ petitions give a concentrated expression to various conflicts in rural areas, posing a great challenge to some local governments.