The enforcement of village-level organization system constitutes the key factor while public management of villages is the primary level of rural governance.
Since reform and opening-up, the Chinese government has shifted the focus of work onto economic development and created the "Chinese Miracle" with a continued and high-speed growth.
With a review of the history of farmers' petition through letters and visits, it could be found that China's rural conflicts have taken on some new features after China's entry into the 21st century.
Township governments are executive bodies assuming the responsibility for executing state power at township level.
Since the turn of the new century, the county and township governments have witnessed major changes relating to their position in the government system.
The large-scale migration of farmers in various regions has become a big issue in China's social and economic life since reform and also a major fact in the course of the modernization drive in China's rural areas.
As China's rural tax-for-fees reform keeps deepening, some problems of township fiscal crisis gradually emerge.
The effectiveness of state governance system and governance ability is reflected in the performance of grassroots governance.